As part of the energy transition law for green growth dated August 17, 2015, France has set itself very specific objectives.
Remember that this law stipulates that the country must contribute more effectively to the fight against climate change and strengthen its energy independence, while guaranteeing access to energy at competitive costs.
“For all renewable technologies. The law plans to increase the share of renewable energies to 23% of gross final energy consumption in 2020 and to 32% in 2030, and to reduce the share of nuclear power in electricity production to 50% by the horizon. 2025. ”(1)
With regard to electricity produced from wind power, again, the government has set a course: for onshore wind power, the installed capacity should reach 24.1 GW by the end of 2023. By 2028, 33.2 GW for a low option, and 34.7 GW for a high option, which will have to be installed in mainland France. As for offshore wind, the objective is to reach 2.4 GW of power by the end of 2023 and a range of 5.2 - 6.2 GW in 2028.
Currently, the Data and Statistical Studies Department (SDES), of the Ministry of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, indicates that the share of power is produced mainly with onshore wind power and that the sector is heading towards 72% of its target. 2023 and between 50 and 52% of its 2028 objectives.
However, the development in wind power is not unanimous.
This is the case, in particular, in the Pays de la Loire where fishermen regard marine wind power with a very negative eye. They oppose the floating wind farm project which should see the light of day in one of their activity zones located in Brittany, west of Belle-île and for which the government has given its approval.
This wind farm should eventually develop a power of 250 megawatts over an area of approximately 130 km2. Another project is in the pipeline which will be the subject of a second call for tenders. This other park, which should be located in the same area, should represent a maximum power of 500 megawatts. The fishermen of the Pays de la Loire also denounce "the decision of the State to advance at a forced march towards the development" of this project and demand the end of "new developments without acquisition of feedback" from the first parks. under construction.
"If the tender area is located in sectors primarily frequented by Breton fishermen, more than sixty Loire-based vessels are regularly active there" , explains the regional committee for fisheries and marine farming of the Countries. of the Loire, in a press release. "Consultation with all the sailors concerned and taking into account the requirements linked to their activity are the key so that these establishments can be done with the approval of the men and women in the field" , judges the president of the Loire committee José Jouneau in the press release. “Professionals are increasing the number of concessions without the stated compensation being respected,” he denounces.
Negotiations between professionals in the fishing sector and public authorities promise to be tough. Some will have to learn to deal with a modified landscape in the name of the energy transition and others will not have to forget to "take into consideration the fishing activities historically present in the sector" before deciding on new areas for the installation of wind turbines. .
(1) - Source: Ministry of Territorial Cohesion and Relations with Local Authorities.